Endangered Archives


EAP373: Documenting, conserving and archiving the Tai Ahom manuscripts of Assam

The Ahom Manuscripts Project will digitize and document the written legacy of Northeastern India’s Ahom Kingdom by photographing and cataloguing approximately 500 Ahom manuscripts (20,000 pages), following best practices and standards for digital imaging, cataloguing, and metatagging, and archiving these materials at the British Library, the Institute for Tai Studies and Research (Moran, India), Gauhati University (Guwahati, India) and Dibrugarh University (Dibrugarh, India).

Founded in 1228, during the great exodus of Tai speakers from southern China that began hundreds of years earlier, the Ahom Kingdom represents the furthest reach of a diverse Tai culture bridging China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Burma. Usually written on Sasi (Aquillaria Agallocha) tree bark, most Ahom manuscripts date to the 17th and 18th centuries, but discuss and/or copy far older texts. They describe all aspects of traditional Ahom life, and have played an active role in maintaining community identity. Among the oldest Tai texts outside Thailand, Ahom texts have seminal cultural, historical, and linguistic value. Separated from Tai culture for centuries, the Ahom branch is essentially unique in never having embraced Buddhism. Ahom texts are free of Sanskrit- and Pali-mediated linguistic and cultural influences that infuse even the 700-year-old Sukhothai Thai inscriptions.

The manuscripts are found in a variety of settings; occasionally well cared for (but not necessarily accessible) in institutions, but more often in private collections held by individual, generally impoverished, families. The material is usually too fragile to be moved, but may be photographed in situ. Many manuscripts are gradually being damaged by Assam’s notoriously wet climate.

An equally important threat is the Ahom community’s diminishing ability to read and interpret texts. Ahom ceased to be a mother-tongue two centuries ago; traditional instruction in the texts is largely a lost tradition. While some Ahom priests can still interpret parts of some texts, most manuscript owners are ignorant of the language, and the manuscripts themselves are increasingly less prized and protected.

The digital images and metadata will be made universally available on-line through the Center for Research in Computational Linguistics, where they will be integrated with existing search tools developed under the Ahom Lexicography project.


EAP373/25: Jibeshwar Phukan Collection

This collection of manuscripts belongs to Jibeshwar Phukan.

EAP373/25/31: Buranji

Level: File
Scope and Content: "In the first folio it is written as jim mv pha tek rvk pung khun lung khun laimeaning in the past Khun Lung Khun Lai were sent down to Mvng Ri Mvng Ram to rule as kings.The lines that follow is about the families that accompanied Khun Lung Khun Lai.Fol 93 (image 0185) includes the name of the owner, Khau Tek Mo Phukan who is the great-great-great-grandfather of the present owner, Jibeshwar Phukan. His name is still in Tai language and he would have lived in the mid 19th century. Jibeshwar's grandfather received a letter from the Chief Secretary of Assam and also from the DHAS in 1932 about this MS. A second text commences on Fol93v (Image 0186). Up to fol 144 this text continues, (_0288.jpg) with numbering of the high numbers in the form digit 20 digit, as 7 20 4 for 144. Following this there is a second fol 144 and beyond, using a different system of number, as pak (100) digit 20 digit, as pak 2 20 4 for 144. may be a different text, or a numbering error, unknown. This numbering continues sequentially from 144 to 163 (_0338.jpg) then fol 164 is missing, possibly taken by Sarat Phukan, and the it continues to fol 169 (image 0348.jpg). Images 0349 and 0350 are the cover, and images 0351 and 0352 may be another manuscript that has been stored with this. Altogether 13 pages are missing, in the custody of Sarat Phukan."
Language(s) Tai Ahom
Script(s) Tai Ahom
Legal & Ethical Usage Policy For research purposes only