Endangered Archives


EAP373: Documenting, conserving and archiving the Tai Ahom manuscripts of Assam

The Ahom Manuscripts Project will digitize and document the written legacy of Northeastern India’s Ahom Kingdom by photographing and cataloguing approximately 500 Ahom manuscripts (20,000 pages), following best practices and standards for digital imaging, cataloguing, and metatagging, and archiving these materials at the British Library, the Institute for Tai Studies and Research (Moran, India), Gauhati University (Guwahati, India) and Dibrugarh University (Dibrugarh, India).

Founded in 1228, during the great exodus of Tai speakers from southern China that began hundreds of years earlier, the Ahom Kingdom represents the furthest reach of a diverse Tai culture bridging China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Burma. Usually written on Sasi (Aquillaria Agallocha) tree bark, most Ahom manuscripts date to the 17th and 18th centuries, but discuss and/or copy far older texts. They describe all aspects of traditional Ahom life, and have played an active role in maintaining community identity. Among the oldest Tai texts outside Thailand, Ahom texts have seminal cultural, historical, and linguistic value. Separated from Tai culture for centuries, the Ahom branch is essentially unique in never having embraced Buddhism. Ahom texts are free of Sanskrit- and Pali-mediated linguistic and cultural influences that infuse even the 700-year-old Sukhothai Thai inscriptions.

The manuscripts are found in a variety of settings; occasionally well cared for (but not necessarily accessible) in institutions, but more often in private collections held by individual, generally impoverished, families. The material is usually too fragile to be moved, but may be photographed in situ. Many manuscripts are gradually being damaged by Assam’s notoriously wet climate.

An equally important threat is the Ahom community’s diminishing ability to read and interpret texts. Ahom ceased to be a mother-tongue two centuries ago; traditional instruction in the texts is largely a lost tradition. While some Ahom priests can still interpret parts of some texts, most manuscript owners are ignorant of the language, and the manuscripts themselves are increasingly less prized and protected.

The digital images and metadata will be made universally available on-line through the Center for Research in Computational Linguistics, where they will be integrated with existing search tools developed under the Ahom Lexicography project.


EAP373/25: Jibeshwar Phukan Collection

This collection of manuscripts belongs to Jibeshwar Phukan.

EAP373/25/6: Buranji

Level: File
Scope and Content: "This manuscript contain historical information. In image 0004, it is recorded the death of the Ahom king Chau Lung Su Pat Pha in the year Lak Ni Khut Mit, Din Si (4th month), on the Rai Sau day. It is also written that he ruled for a period of 34 years. He was succeeded by Chau Su Khung Ba in the same year, on the 5th day of the Din Ruk (6 month) month. The inner cover of this MS (image 0002) contains a list of the names of months and days. The text commences on 1r (image 0004), commencing with a prayer to Ai Sang Ching. It then descrubes the death of Sv Pat Pha, and the succession of Sv Khang Pha. Image 0028 contains a list of Ahom manuscripts; and on 0029 the name of the copyist is given as Sri Bhekura . His son is named as Molai Ghoria Baruah (line 6). His family was named as Khau Tek. Lak Ni Kat Rau, Dvn Sam. This corresponds to 1754-1755 or 1814-1815."
Language(s) Tai Ahom
Script(s) Tai Ahom
Legal & Ethical Usage Policy For research purposes only